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Preprint accepted manuscripts are PDF versions of the author’s final manuscript, as accepted for publication by the journal but prior to copyediting or typesetting. They can be cited using the author(s), article title, journal title and year of publication.
They will be replaced in the appropriate issue by the final typeset articles, which may therefore contain changes.

 

 

 

Human monkeypox disease (MPX)

Ramadan Abdelmoez Farahat, Ranjit Sah, Amro A. El-Sakka, Amira Yasmine Benmelouka, Mrinmoy Kundu, Fatma Labieb, Rahma Sameh Shaheen, Abdelaziz Abdelaal, Basel Abdelazeem, D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Andres F. Henao-Martinez, Mohammed A. Garout, Darwin A. León-Figueroa, Monica Pachar, José Antonio Suárez, Juan David Ramirez, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, Ali A. Rabaan, Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq, Hiroshi Nishiura, Yeimer Ortiz-Martínez, Juan Esteban Garcia-Robledo, Sergio Cimerman, Alexandre Naime Barbosa, Pasquale Pagliano, Gabriela Zambrano-Sanchez, Jaime A. Cardona-Ospina, Beatrice Bížová, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales


The paper will appear in: Infez Med, September 2022

Published on the journal website: 20 June 2022. Section: Review

 

Abstract

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection, endemic in many central and western African countries. The last international outbreak of monkeypox reported outside Africa occurred back in 2003. However, monkeypox has reemerged at a global scale with numerous confirmed cases across the globe in 2022. The rapid spread of cases through different countries has raised serious concerns among public health officials worldwide prompting accelerated investigations aimed to identify the origins and cause of the rapid expansion of cases. The current situation is reminiscent of the very early stages of the still ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Overlapping features between these, two seemingly alike viral entities include the possibility for airborne transmission and the currently unexplained and rapid spread across borders. Early recognition of cases and timely intervention of potential transmission chains are necessary to contain further outbreaks. Measures should include, rapid and accurate diagnosis of cases meeting case definitions, active surveillance efforts, and appropriate containment of confirmed cases. Governments and health policymakers must apply lessons learned from previous outbreaks and start taking active steps toward limiting the recent global spread of monkeypox. Herein, we discuss the status of the current monkeypox outbreaks worldwide, the epidemiological and public health situation at a global scale and what can be done to keep at bay its further expansion and future global implications.

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Home management of COVID-19 symptomatic patients: a safety study on covid committed home medical teams.

Sergio Venturini, Daniele Orso, Francesco Cugini, Francesco Martin, Cecilia Boccato, Laura De Santi, Elisa Pontoni, Silvia Tomasella, Fabrizio Nicotra, Alessandro Grembiale, Maurizio Tonizzo, Silvia Grazioli, Sara Fossati, Astrid Callegari, Giovanni del Fabro,  Massimo Crapis

The paper will appear in: Infez Med, September 2022

Published on the journal website: 30 May 2022. Section: Original article


Abstract

To reduce the overburden in the hospital, during the COVID-19 pandemic, some "COVID Committed Home Medical Teams" (CCHTs) were created in Italy. These units consist of a small pool of general practitioners who aim to evaluate all patients with COVID-19 who require a medical examination directly at home. After the first visit (which can end with patient hospitalisation or home management), CCHTs periodically monitor the patients' clinical conditions and vital signs (usually a revaluation every 24-48 hours, except for a sudden worsening). However, this strategy - which reduces the pressure on hospitals - has never been evaluated for patient safety. Our study aims to determine whether a home-based monitoring and treatment strategy for non-severe COVID-19 patients was safe as direct hospital admission by the emergency department. We conducted a retrospective observational study about 1,182 patients admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 between September 2020 and April 2021, confronting in-hospital and 30-day mortality in both CCHT-referred (n=275) and directly admitted by emergency department (n=907). Patients assessed by the CCHT had lower in-hospital and 30-day mortality (18% vs 28%, p = 0.001; and 20% vs 30%, p = 0.002); but, in the propensity score matching comparison, there was no characteristic between the two groups turned out significantly different. CCHT did not correlate with in-hospital or 30-day mortality. CCHT is a safe strategy to reduce hospital overburden for COVID-19 during pandemic surges.

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The Manchurian pandemic of pneumonic plague (1910-1911)

Spyros N. Michaleas, Konstantinos Laios, Marianna Karamanou, Nikolaos V. Sipsas, Georges Androutsos


The paper will appear in: Infez Med, September 2022

Published on the journal website: 30 May 2022. Section: History of Medicine

Abstract

China’s winter of 1910-1911 was one of its most difficult. A deadly airborne pneumonic plague, believed to have originated from tarbagan marmots, broke out in October 1910 in a northeastern Chinese province commonly known by the exonym Manchuria. The disease had a near 100 percent mortality rate, affecting mainly the lower socio-economic classes and eventually killing more than 60,000 people over six months. By April 1911, the epidemic was suppressed, in large part due to the efforts of a Western-educated Chinese physician, Wu Lian-Teh. Similar to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the Great Manchurian Plague outbreak highlighted the importance of personal protective equipment, such as face masks, and a quick and efficient international medical response.

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